Mithra is the Zoroastrian angelic Divinity (yazata) of Covenant and Pledge. In addition to being the Divinity of Contracts, Mithra is additionally a judicial figure, an all- seeing the Defender of Cows, the Crop, and Protector of Truth and of The Waters.
The Romans credited their Mithraic Mysteries (the Mystery Religion called Mithraism) to Persian or Zoroastrian sources relating to Mithra. But since the early 1970s, dissimilarities have been noted by the dominant scholarship, and those Puzzles are at present qualified as a different Roman merchandise.
This relief depicts a bull being sacrificed by Mithra.
In the Zoroastrian calendar, the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the year and the month are dedicated to, and under the protection of, Mithra. (Iranian civil calendar of 1925 taken on -names, and as such also has the seventh month of the year named 'Mihr'). The position of the sixteenth day and seventh month represents Mithra's status in the hierarchy of the Divinities; the sixteenth day and seventh month are respectively the first day of the second half of the month and the first month of the second half of the year. The day on which the day-name and month-name dedications intersect is (like all other such intersections) dedicated to the divinity of that day/month, and is observed with a Jashan (from AvestanYasna, "Worship") in honor of that Divinity. In the instance of Mithra, this was Jashan-e Mihragan, or simply Mihragan in short.
While Mithra isn't the Divinity of the Sun in Zoroastrian scripture (or in Indian scripture either), this being the part of Hvare.khshaeta (literally "Radiant Sun", whence additionally Middle Persian Khorshed for the Sun), in Zoroastrian/Iranian tradition, Mithra became the Divinity of the Sun. How, when or why this happened is unclear, but it's usually credited to a conflation with the Babylonian Shamash, who ? in addition to truly being a Sun God ? was a judicial figure like Mithra. In the Hellenistic age (i.e., in Seleucid and Parthian times), Mithra also appears to have been conflated with Apollo, who ? like Mithra ? is an all-seeing Divinity of the Truth.
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